Islamic Knowledge
Code: 393   |  View : 1414   |  Comments : 0 RSS comment feed   |   Print   |   Email  

Al-Biruni, a True Scholar

04 August, 2007 13:07
Al-Biruni, a True Scholar

Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Abul-Rayhan

Al-Biruni (973-1050AD), from Haran.

His production exceeds 146 titles in more than 20 different disciplines, ranging from astronomy to mathematics, mathematical geography, chronology, mechanics, pharmacology, mineralogy, history, literature, religion, and philosophy.

But the bulk of his work lies in mathematics and related disciplines (96 titles). Only 22 works have survived the ravages of time; and only 13 of these have been published.

His work Chronology (Al-Athar) combines literary and historical sources of medieval sects and nations with the astronomical lore about their calendars, feasts, and astronomical parameters used in their rituals. His (Tahdid, the demarcation of the coordinates of cities) was written so as to determine the Qibla. Biruni also determined the local meridian and the coordinates of any locality.

His al-Qanun Al-Mas'udi is a most extensive astronomical encyclopaedia, slightly short of 1,500 pages. In it he determines the motion of the solar apogee, corrects Ptolemy's findings, and is able to state for the first time that the motion is not identical to that of precession, but comes very close to it. In this book, too, Biruni employs mathematical techniques unknown to his predecessors that involve analysis of instantaneous motion and acceleration, described in terminology that can best be understood if we assume that he had "mathematical functions" in mind.

Six hundred years before Galileo, Al-Biruni discussed the theory of the earth rotating about is own axis. Using the astrolabe and the presence of a mountain near a sea or flat plain, he calculated the earth circumference by solving a highly complex geodesic equation.

With the aid of mathematics, he also enabled the direction of the Qibla to be determined from anywhere in the world. Max Meyerhof observed earlier this century that most of al-Biruni's mathematical works and many other writings have not been published yet.

References:

1 Max Meyerhof: Science and Medicine, in Sir Thomas Arnold and A. Guillaume edition: The Legacy of Islam, first edition; Oxford University Press; 1931; pp 311-55, at p. 332.

Category : Muslim Thinkers & Scholars  |   Rate : Article Rating|  
Al-Biruni, a True Scholar
Post Rating
Comments
There are currently no comments, be the first to post one.
Post Comment

Name (required)

Email (required)

Website

CAPTCHA image
Enter the code shown above:

Knowledge Search
Knowledge Categories
Our Products
Islamic World News
Muslim peace march: Hundreds take to Cologne streets to protest Islamist terrorism Muslim peace march: Hundreds take to Cologne stree...

Hundreds took part in a Muslim "peace march" against terrorism held in the German city of Cologne on Saturday, the DPA news agency reported. The rally under the motto of “Not With Us”...

Read more
ISIS condemned by 300 Austrian Muslim imams who sign declaration against 'extremism, violence and terror' ISIS condemned by 300 Austrian Muslim imams who si...

Austria's imams gather to deliver their message against extremism: 'These terrorists misuse our peaceful Islam religion to reach their political goals.'

Read more
During Ramadan, bottled water helps local Muslims bridge religious divide During Ramadan, bottled water helps local Muslims ...

As Muslims in Louisville and around the globe are celebrating the holy month of Ramadan, some young Muslims in the city are taking this time to educate their fellow citizens about Islam. Many in ...

Read more
Building a mosque in Italy where Islam is without official status Building a mosque in Italy where Islam is without ...

An estimated 3.7 percent of Italy's population is Muslim but Islam is the only major faith there that does not have official status.  As a result, mosques are not eligible for stat...

Read more
Global religious leaders join for online friendship appeal Global religious leaders join for online friendshi...

Global religious leaders contributed to an appeal launched Wednesday that calls on people to make friends with followers of different faiths in the hope that it will foster mutual understanding a...

Read more
Pause
© Copyright 2003 Islamic Research and Information Center( I R I C ) All Rights Reserved
Please send your comments and suggestions to info@iric.org
Graphic Design : nahaki.ir | Potral : Arianaltd.com